Procedures

TESA

TESA is a very straightforward and minor procedure, usually carried as a day case surgery under a local or a general anaesthetic and is usually used for men with non-obstructive azoospermia condition. During the procedure, testicular tissue is aspirated using a needle. Then, the tissue is used to extract sperm for use in In Vitro fertilizations.

ZIFT

ZIFT (Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer) is an assisted reproductive procedure where the patient's eggs are fertilized outside the body and the fertilized zygote is transferred directly into the fallopian tube instead of the uterus. Along with IVF, ZIFT is sometimes used in women with repeated IVF failure, advanced maternal age or uterine malformations.

PGD

PGD (Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis). is a technique involving the identification of genetic defects and specific diseases in the embryo before transferring it to the uterus and is undergone when one or both parents has a genetic abnormality. By doing so, it allows a 99% accuracy in selecting embryos with desired known chromosomal constituency. PGD can also be used to select the sex (gender) of the embryo.

IVF ICSI

IVF (in vitro fertilization) is the fertility treatment that is most well-known. It means "fertilization in glass", hence the expression "test tube baby". There are various stages involved in IVF treatment:

Stages of IVF:

Prescription

You will be prescribed drugs that will help control when your eggs are produced. You will also take drugs to increase the number of eggs you produce. This means that more eggs can be fertilized and the clinic will have a greater choice of fertilized eggs to use in treatment.

Checking on progress

The clinic will carry out vaginal ultrasound scans to monitor your developing eggs. They will also do blood tests to chart the rising levels of oestrogen produced by your eggs. This helps to track how your eggs are maturing. 34-38 hours before your eggs are due to be collected, you will have a hormone injection to help your eggs mature. This injection is usually given at night.

Collecting woman's eggs

Eggs are usually collected by ultrasound guidance, which takes around15 minutes. Your doctor will insert a thin needle through your vagina into each ovary. The eggs will be sucked into the needle.

Collecting man's sperm

Around the same time that the eggs are collected, the male partner will produce a sperm sample which will be stored for a short time and the sperm washed and spun so that the healthiest sperm can be used to fertilize the eggs.

Uterine Embryo Transfer

Two to five days after egg collection, the best embryos are selected, loaded in a catheter and transferred to the Uterus in a simple procedure. Once done, the patient is prescribed porjetere supplement for two weeks before doing a pregnancy test.

Intra Uterine Insemination IUI

Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI) is a procedure that involves placing sperm inside a woman's uterus to facilitate fertilization and is a form of assisted conception.

Stages of IUI

  • On day 3 of the cycle, the patient usually starts stimulation with medications (either injections or tablets) to induce multiple egg development. The patient is then monitored with ultrasounds until follicular size reaches 20mm in diameter. Then, Insemination is performed after inducing ovulation with HCG (in the form of an injection).
  • The husband's semen is "washed" in the laboratory (called sperm processing or sperm washing). During this process, the sperm is separated from the other components of the semen and concentrated in a much smaller volume. Various media and techniques can be used to perform the washing and separation, depending on the case and preferences of the fertility doctor and laboratory. The sperm processing takes about 20-60 minutes, depending on the technique utilized.
  • The patient is prepared; a speculum is placed in the vagina and the cervical area is gently cleaned.
  • Then, the separated and washed sperm is placed into the uterine cavity (intrauterine insemination, IUI) using a sterile, thin and soft catheter. Intrauterine insemination has a success rate of 15-25%; it is the most common primary procedure performed in unexplained infertility cases.
  • Once IUI is completed, the patient is prescribed Progesterone Supplements.
  • Patients do not need to rest after IUI. No restrictions are made on sexual activity or food habits or daily work. A Pregnancy test is then performed after 14 days of IUI. If the patient is pregnant; she is asked to keep taking her medications until 10 weeks gestation.

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